Wow you really believe that the propaganda movie Enemy at the gates is according to the true story? I will give you a small copy pasta you might enjoy.
1. At the beginning of the movie with the young Zaitsev with his grandfather, the scene is a work of fiction. Although Zaitsev spent his youth with his grandparents he only killed a wolf once(he was 14) while trapping rabbits with his cousin, Zaitsev saw eyes in the distance in the darkness and fired with his hunting rifle, hours later they found a dead wolf.
2. The movie labels him as an "un-educated peasant"(or herder/rancher) which is not true, at the age of 17(1932) he moved to the city of Magnitogorsk and began working at an industrial construction site. In this city he attended a Technical School where he got a degree in book-keeping.
3. The map at the beginning shows an un-realistic map of Europe during WW2 with the the Soviet Union having modern day Russian border missing a large chunk of its territory. Italy was never conquered by Germany, much of Eastern Europe were Axis Allies.
4. He was not a "conscript" either. At the age of 21(1936) he was drafted into the Soviet Navy, where he became a clerk in a Navy office. By 1942 he had a senior NCO rank (Rank equal to Senior Sergeant I think Staff Sergeant in US Military) and 6 years of service with the Navy in the city of Vladivostok(Russian Far East city on the Pacific Ocean). In May of that year the main Black Sea Fleet base of Sevastopol was abandoned after 7 months of siege. Many sailors including Zaitsev wanted to get into the fight and get revenge for Sevastopol. In June 1942 there was a call for Volunteers for a Marine Battalion to join the 1047th Rifle Regiment of the 284th Rifle Division, Zaitsev reported to his commanding officer and requested re-assignment to the new Battalion. His commander said that he might be too short to be a Marine but granted his request. In July the Battalion went through Army training(where AND THIS IS KEY Everyone learned how to fire a rifle with accuracy, clean a rifle, and survival skills). In August the 27 year old Zaitsev was mobilized to head West.
5. Then there is the scene with "soldiers"(pseudo-soldiers) heading to the Front in a train full of civilians, then the train is stopped, the civilians are removed and the train (cattle) car doors are locked shut. Now that is absolute nonsense. There were no civilians heading in the direction of the enemy on Military trains(especially not on Military trains), the flow of Refugees was 95% of the time to the East, while troops would head to the West. There was also no locking of any train cars, both officers and soldiers rode in the same train car.
Zaitsev did indeed go to Stalingrad on a train, but it had no civilians on it. The only women he saw on the train were Army nurses and medics, one caught his attention. She was not Tatiana Chernova. Days before arriving near Stalingrad Zaitsev's Platoon was instructed on how to use a Maxim machinegun, the standard Medium to Heavy Machinegun in the Red Army at the time. Then on September 19th they arrived about 10km East of Stalingrad and were off loaded near a road because there was a threat of German bomber attack if they went any closer. They marched on foot in full combat gear with weapons until trucks became available to drive them to the town of Krasnaya Sloboda across from Stalingrad where they underwent further urban combat training.
6. The scene where they arrive at Stalingrad by train is therefore also fiction. The whole guy waving flag and yelling through a megaphone looked very stupid, in reality they would have made the perfect bomber target. Such a disorganized structure would have never won a single battle. There were officers assigned to each unit, the unit trained with the same officer since boot camp. The structure was the same as in any Army, the Major communicated his order to his Captains, who communicated the order to the Lieutenants, who would issue orders to the Sergeants below them who would order their soldiers to carry out the order. The only time officers used megaphones or microphones to address troops was when they were gathered together outside of battle not in battle.
On September 21st Zaitsev assumed his role and led a Squad of troops into a wooded area across from the city of Stalingrad and took cover here until night. Most of his Battalion took up positions near the Volga river. At night wounded were brought over from the opposite side and transported to nearby field hospitals. On the morning of September 22nd barges and rowboats became available and the 284th Rifle Division crossed the Volga river before sunrise. There were no attacks on the crossing that night even though German howitzers could do that and had attacked previous crossings several nights before.
This means the crossing in the movie is also fiction and somewhat suicidal.
7. This movie caused a lot of confusion and misunderstanding as far as ranks and titles are concerned. The term "Commissar" was not a title, it was a rank, in the Red Army it had been used since the Russian Civil War(1917-21) as a Senior Officer rank. But it also had an adjective describing the authority of the officer. Battalion Commissar meant the officer was equal to a Major, Regiment Commissar meant the officer was equal to a Lieutenant Colonel, and so on, the highest rank of a "Commissar" could have was Corps Commissar, this rank was rare and completely abolished by 1939, replaced by a rank of "General", before 1939 the highest ranks were Komandarm 1st class etc and Marshal. Komandarm was simply Commander of a (Field) Army, Marshal was the highest possible officer rank somebody could have. Commissars were the primary officers (not political officers) in the Red Army up to 1939. Before 1939 officers below the rank of Commissar were normal ranks(commander of a Company and commander of a Platoon) and a rank of a Political Supervisor or Politruk, this rank required both officer training and Communist Party member status for political indoctrination. Politruks were equal in rank to a Lieutenant, usually Junior Grade to Senior Politruk(could command a Company). In the 1939 this system was abandoned, replaced by a more common system of Majors, Colonels, and Generals. The term "Commissar" became an Executive Officer rank from that year on. Lieutenants replaced "Platoon Commanders" and Politruks became 2nd in command. Commissars never "personally" ordered any soldiers around as shown in the movie, as I already mentioned. NCO's would order around the Privates, the highest ranking NCO was the Starshina (equal to Master Sergeant or Sergeant Major), to be a Starshina you had to be a Veteran of many years of service, just any idiot would not do.
The above information has to be mentioned before any more mistakes can be listed.
8. So the suicidal crossing scene is fiction as I mentioned. So are the depictions of sadistic "pseudo-officers" who in the movie go around being called generic "Commissars" and "Political Officers" which don't really mean anything.
During the morning of September 22nd 1942 troops of the 284th Rifle Division crossed the Volga river under the cover of darkness, each men knew as soon as he set off for Stalingrad that deserters(and I mean REAL deserters not people who retreat) would be punished and faced possible execution under Order 227. Nobody even thought about jumping overboard into the river knowing full well that he/she would drown as soon as he/she did because of the equipment carried by the soldiers.
Was night crossing always the preferred form of moving across the Volga? No when necessary day crossings were made with small amounts of fast patrol boats, but this was rare as the battle went on.
9. The Ju-87 Stukas attack in broad daylight and there is not even a hint of anti-aircraft weapons or an Air Force on the Soviet side(another mistake, as there were 100's of air battles over the Stalingrad sky with Soviet fighters against German fighters and bombers). One female Soviet ace Lidya Litvyak flew Yak-1 and La-5 fighter planes over Stalingrad.
10. When the boat arrives at the dock the really absurd events start taking place. Yet again no organization. And then the writers decided to get "creative" and start rationing rifles. Really how the hell did we ever win the Battle of Moscow in 1941 with "One man gets a rifle, the next man 5 rounds of ammunition"? Of course the most stupid scene that is connected to this one comes several minutes later when Danilov asks Zaitsev: "Do you know how to shoot a rifle?". The next statement a viewer should make is: "WHAT THE HELL ARE YOU DOING IN THE ARMY IF YOU DON'T EVEN KNOW HOW TO SHOOT A RIFLE!?!". And this is true, it makes no sense. Every Regular Army in the world teaches their soldiers how to shoot their weapon, there is no Army that "skips" this vital part of training their soldiers. So when the writers invent their own rules and "suggest" that these "pseudo-soldiers" never saw a rifle in their lives this made a lot of people(Russian WW2 Veterans) angry. Then they are not soldiers, just people wearing Army caps and Winter coats in the month of September. What could civilians without training accomplish in battle, nothing! It takes experience for civilians to become soldiers. And the writers seem to not know this.
No Regular Army in the world has a practice of issuing weapons to its troops just seconds before they enter battle. Weapons are issued as I said before after training and distributed long before entering combat. Nobody in their right mind would set up arms distribution in the middle of a battle under enemy bomber attack. And no, weapons rationing did not happen in Stalingrad, especially with the bolt action rifles, there were millions of them lying around since WW1. Even civilian volunteers who wanted to fight could expect to at least get an old WW1 period rifle.
The "Pseudo-soldiers" in Army winter coats run up the river bank and suddenly in between them "soldiers" wearing actual combat gear materialize. I have no idea where they came from. But the scene seems to suggest there was a caste system in the Red Army or something, because the "soldiers" have weapons and helmets and don't appear the same as the "pseudo-soldiers". There are also "soldiers" firing sub-machineguns at aircraft with no hope of hitting them since they are out of range. There were no "upper class" soldiers. A soldier was a soldier, only Penal Companies or Battalions had soldiers who were considered less important and did not even wear any kind of insignia. This was because these were made up of deserters and prisoners not regular soldiers.