In 2005, a majority of Brazil's population voted against banning the sale of guns and ammunition to civilians in a referendum. Executive Order No. 5.123, of 1 July 2004 allowed the Federal Police to confiscate firearms which are not possessed for a valid reason; self-defense was not considered a valid argument.
These measures saw mixed results. Initially, the crime rate dropped, but subsequently rose in later years. 2012 marked the highest rate of gun deaths in 35 years for Brazil, eight years after a ban on carrying handguns in public went in to effect, and 2016 saw the worst ever death toll from homicide in Brazil, with 61,619 dead. The death toll rose again in 2017 to 63,880, a 3.7% rise from 2016