"Acredita-se" Menos sff
Faltou mencionar o acordo militar que a Inglaterra tinha com Portugal.
Na sequência da assinatura do tratado de adesão de Portugal à aliança anglo-austríaca que se opunha a que os Bourbons tomassem a coroa de Espanha, foi assinado entre a Inglaterra e Portugal um tratado de natureza comercial.
Assinado em Lisboa, a 27 de dezembro de 1703, estabelecia-se a livre entrada dos lanifícios ingleses em Portugal e uma redução nas tarifas impostas aos vinhos portugueses que entravam na Inglaterra, o que colocava os vinhos portugueses numa situação privilegiada em relação aos vinhos franceses.
Do lado português estiveram presentes o duque de Cadaval e o marquês de Alegrete, ambos grandes proprietários vinhateiros. Do lado inglês, esteve o embaixador extraordinário John Methuen. Este tratado foi, posteriormente, ratificado pelo Parlamento inglês. Em Portugal, em abril de 1704, foi revogada a lei "pragmática" que proibia o uso de tecidos ingleses. A partir de 1705, esta regalia estendeu-se também aos tecidos holandeses e franceses, situação que desagradou aos ingleses.
A principal consequência deste tratado foi o abandono da política de fomento industrial do conde de Ericeira.
Port wine played the same role in Portugal that whisky did in Scotland, as a profitable export to England from a struggling economy. English merchants were already established in Lisbon and Oporto, shipping in English cloth and taking payment in wine when they had to, though they preferred cash because English consumers were far fonder of Bordeaux claret than of the rough wines of Portugal. When England and France were at war, however, as they were in 1703, French wine was not readily available. With the War of the Spanish Succession in progress, a military alliance between England and Portugal against France and Spain was negotiated in Lisbon by John Methuen and his son Paul in May. It was followed at the end of the year by a commercial treaty, which John Methuen arranged between Queen Anne’s government and the Portuguese regime of Pedro II.
John Methuen was closely linked to the English cloth trade. A Wiltshireman, he was the son of the greatest clothier of the day and MP for the cloth town of Devizes from the 1690s to his death. He was also Lord Chancellor of Ireland from 1697 and he and his son Paul (who would end up as Sir Paul) both served as envoys to Portugal. The treaty, which was not abrogated until 1836, guaranteed entry to England for unlimited quantities of Portuguese wine at a one-third lower rate of duty than that levied on French wine in return for unhindered imports of English cloth and wool products into Portugal and the Portuguese Atlantic colonies. The Portuguese wine growers gained an assured market and the Lisbon government a reliable source of easily collectable customs revenue, while the English took a dominating position in the Portuguese economy.
The discovery of gold in Brazil at the end of the 17th century revived Portugal’s economy, but gold production was in decline by 1750, while the diamond market was saturated. In the later 18th century a series of protectionist measures were introduced, many by Pombal. The Methuen Treaty (1703) with England had strengthened the port wine trade at the expense of Portuguese cloth; further attempts were later made to improve the export value of port wine. Support was also given for the production of woolen goods, linen, paper, porcelain, and cutlery and to the tunny and sardine fisheries. Pombal attempted to create an educated bourgeoisie, but the Portuguese textile industry could not withstand mechanized competition. After 1850 public works, railways, and ports were given priority, but it was not until the 20th century that any sustained attack upon Portugal’s economic difficulties was undertaken.
The discovery of gold in Brazil at the end of the 17th century revived Portugal’s economy, but gold production was in decline by 1750, while the diamond market was saturated. In the later 18th century a series of protectionist measures were introduced, many by Pombal.
Muito do ouro foi gasto a comprar produtos e a fazer festas, e pouco foi investido na industrialização, o que nos feriu em longo prazo.