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"Researchers from KU Leuven and data intelligence company SciSports (the Netherlands) have developed an algorithm to value a player’s impact on the game. “Football players are often judged solely on their goals and assists,” says Professor Davis from the Department of Computer Science at KU Leuven. “But the number of goals is not the best parameter if you consider that on average, there are 1,600 actions in each game. That’s why our computer model takes into account all on-the-ball actions: shots, passes, dribbles, tackles …
The model generates a rating called VAEP (Valuing Actions by Estimating Probabilities). This rating indicates how a specific player’s actions contribute to the game score – offensively (scoring goals) as well as defensively (preventing goals from the opposition). This way, you can evaluate a player’s performance and his contribution to the team in greater detail.
Traditionally you find a trade-off between the quality and quantity of the actions. Players like Kevin De Bruyne and Paul Pogba perform a large number of actions but with a lower average value per action. Other players perform fewer actions, but with a bigger impact. This is typically the case for strikers such as Harry Kane, Mohamed Salah, and Cristiano Ronaldo. In this respect, Lionel Messi is a true outlier: the Argentinian performs a large number of actions with a high value.”