Many many many, specially institutional racism
But even if you are one of those ignorants who say that institutional racism is BS, let's talk about CAPITALISM
You enslave a race for almost 500 years and then abolish slavery and "free" the black people
What will happen with those people?
They will be poor, with 0 study and in a heavily racist society that used to enslave them until yesterday
As everyone knows, in capitalism the rich tends to get richer and the poor tends to remain poor, so black people were in terrible conditions even after they were "freed"
The slavery ended less than 150 years ago here in brasil, so the great great grandparent of someone black were in this situation, and it is VERY hard to become rich when you're poor because of 100 different reasons
So it is fair to say that in brasil we have a huge social inequality between black and white people BECAUSE of slavery
I studied in a private school (which are 500x better than public schools) and there was a ratio of like 50:1 white to black students......makes you wonder....