Definitely not C++ for front end lol... Where the hell did you get this from? This is not even my opinion, C++ is NOT a frontend "framework" nor a language... that's like eating soup with a fork.
Why would someone who wants to learn general programming (he did not explicitly state web development) learn front-end stuff?
My recommendation would be to learn an object-oriented (or even any high-level) programming language first, something like C# or Java properly, from basics to advanced stuff. This is because this will provide a great base and understanding of how programming works and how it SHOULD work. From there it's easy to pick up other languages, especially other object-oriented languages.
If you're looking to learn web development, well pick a backend language, there's a lot of them, but again, my recommendation would be C# or/and PHP - PHP only if you're going to focus on web development and only on that.
It's all about finding what you want to do, just because you want to be a "programmer" doesn't mean you need to learn C++, that's a pretty low level language and unless you're into games development and/or an embedded engineer, I wouldn't bother with it.
And this does not even involve databases yet, which in themselves are also convoluted and each developer should have a basic understanding of terminology and functionality of what the database functions and keywords are and especially, how to design a rational database that's normalised to at least third form.
Anyway, pick what you're interested in doing first. OP probably needs to do a bit of research regarding the industry he seems himself working in the future and starting there.